Report: Integrated cross-national dataset on migration policies and recognition of foreign educational credentials
The purpose of this report is to identify and map mobility-friendly skills and vocational education and training policies and programmes across Britain, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Norway. It provides an overview of the general structure of such training, and the groups of people (e.g. low-skilled immigrants) targeted by training policies in each country, with attention to similarities and differences across countries. Following Grubb and Ryan (1999) we classify vocational education and training (VET) into four categories:
1) Pre-employment VET: training for initial entry into employment through programmes within the schooling system; these programmes are generally operated by national ministries of education, and in so-called dual-systems, they are complemented by training in workplaces.
2) Upgrade training: for individuals already in employment and in need of skill improvement due to technological change and advancement in work environment.
3) Retraining: for individuals who have lost their jobs and are in need of further training in order to find new ones.
4) Remedial VET: for individuals who have been out of the labour force for a long time and are in need of training in essential skills.