WP2 addresses Objective 1 of the GEMM project and provides a rigorous analysis of the labour market incorporation of migrants to reflect on one of the two drivers of growth: the efficient utilization of human capital.
We use existing secondary data to analyse labour market integration of immigrants across the EU-15 and Norway. The research agenda for WP2 consists of several elements:
- The geographical focus throughout WP2 is on EU15 countries and Norway for which data exists at different levels of inequality: individual, contextual and institutional. We will also include a comparison to the three classic immigration countries (US, Canada and Australia).
- We consider an eleven-year period (2003–2014) concentrating on three main points in time (pre, during and post) the economic crisis of 2008-2010. This allows us to comment on the contemporaneous implications of the crisis to migration streams as well as on its consequences.
- Pre (2003–2007)
- During (2008–2010) [2011 for Italy and Spain who have experienced double-dip recession]
- Post (2011–2014)
- WP2 compares natives to migrant and to minority groups. By differentiating between the outcomes of migrants and the second generation we ensure that the long term consequences of migrant adaptation are taken into account.
- WP2 focuses on several indicators of socio-economic integration to encompass successful adaptation.
- We consider the participation rates of working-age immigrants that are a marker of their activity and ability to contribute to the receiving society.
- The occupational attainment of migrant groups is analysed to comment on their ability to secure good jobs. Over-qualification is constructed by using a scale to express the gap between modal qualification within the individual’s chosen occupation and their own highest qualification (Green and Zhu 2010).
- Wage remuneration is analysed.
- Transition models are used. Modelling transitions is an important approach that allows researchers to move the discussion from the cross-sectional examination of the incidence of disadvantage, be it unemployment or unskilled occupations, towards a dynamic understanding of recurrent inequality. Transition analyses will rely on the longitudinal component of EU-SILC.
- Language competence is examined. Lack of such competence can lead to inability to enter into direct negotiations with receiving country employers (Dustmann 1999), to establish ties with natives, utilize institutions and crucially acquire further skills and improve one’s social position.
The figure below represents the specific tasks.